To determine nuclear structure, one uses nonlinear spectroscopy to determine the dynamics of the system. However, to use nonlinear spectroscopy, one needs a model of the system.

Do we believe that antimatter nucleon clusters are present as a parton (in the sense of Feynman) in the spacial confinement of the proton?

Do we believe in a close packed sheet model (in the sense of Thompson) or in an icosahedron model?

Do we believe 2-body fusion takes pace or does multibody predominate?

Do we have a self organized critical phenomena?

Do we favor supersymmetric mesons (as extensions of Klein-Gordon) or pions ( in the sense of Brightsen)?

I will study the model of the atomic nucleus by the late nuclear physicist R. Brightsen that views the proton as being the outcome of a quantum superposition of nucleon clusters. One form is to combine a matter [PNP] cluster with an antimatter [N^P^] cluster, where ^ = antimatter. The quantum outcome is a real [P] superposed state bound to an imaginary [NP][N^P^] state. In quark dynamics this resolves into a 6-antiquark bag (d^d^d^u^u^u^) rotating against a 9-quark matter bag (uuuuudddd)--that is, the concept of the nucleon and free quark disappears--the "bags" become the fundamental building blocks of nuclei. It is predicted that formation of colorless pions (d^u) or (u^d) allow for the matter and antimatter bags to bind (via interaction of positive mass and negative mass by gravity and antigravity), leaving (uud) = 1-H-1 (the proton) as the real quantum superposed (unbound) state that we observe. Thus the Brightsen model predicts potential for anti-baryon structure within 1-H-1, plus (important for low energy fusion reactions) that anti-deuteron structure is also part of the internal structure of 1-H-1.

The Brightsen Model predicts that beta stable isotopes are made of 2-mass nucleon clusters [NP](deuterium) and 3-mass clusters [PNP](He-3); [NPN](H-3 or tritium). Halo clusters [PP] and [NN] also possible and discussed by Brightsen. The selection rule of how to form any isotope is 3 [NP] = 1 [PNP]+ 1{NPN], this is why all isotopes can have many different possible nucleon cluster configurations (they are called isodynes). So, for example, stable 28-Ni-62 can be: 13[NP]+9[NPN]+3[PNP] or equally possible is the isodyne 1[NP]+13[NPN]+7[PNP]...they are both valid quantum probability wavefunctions of what we call 28-Ni-62 isotope. Many other nucleon cluster configurations also are possible for 28-Ni-62, including the presence of antimatter for all three of the fundamental 2 and 3 mass clusters. The way I try to understand the physical situation is to use the Richard Feynman 'sum-over-history' approach. Thus any isotope is the sum-over-history of all quantum nucleon cluster possibilities, the one we measure breaks the symmetry. So, if you ask, which of the many possible Brightsen nucleon cluster configurations represents 28-Ni-62, the Feynman answer is 'all of them'. The possible Brightsen nucleon cluster configurations can be determined for all 4400+ known beta stable and unstable isotopes from Z = 1 to 118.

Concerning the predictions of the Brightsen Model for the Rossi E-Cat, the previous post I made is a prediction based on statements of Mr. Rossi that no radioactive isotopes are present in the ash at the end of any E-Cat reaction. If this is a true statement, then there cannot be radioactive 28-Ni-59 isotope present in the ash, which there must be if there is an initial reaction of [P] from hydrogen gas with stable 28-Ni-58 isotope (e.g., the radioactive 28-Ni-59 would come from beta+ decay of 29-Cu-59, which is the direct byproduct of reaction of proton [P] with 28-Ni-58 in the powder). So, if it is true that there is no radioactive 28-Ni-59 in the ash of the E-Cat, then the Brightsen Model predicts why it is true, it predicts why a reaction of 28-Ni-58 with a proton [P] from hydrogen gas cannot occur, not at a level that would produce significant excess heat in the high MeV range. However, if we found that radioactive 28-Ni-59 is present in the ash of the E-Cat, then I would need to take a second look at the Brightsen Model to see how this might be explained based on the possible nucleon cluster configurations.

Concerning the 30% copper isotopes reported by some to be present in the ash of the E-Cat. If this is true, the Brightsen Model would predict that it is possible without any reaction of hydrogen gas with stable 28-Ni-58 isotope in the initial powder. We can get ~30% copper in ash from reaction with the four other stable Ni isotopes (Ni-60,61,62,64). The Brightsen Model would predict how each of these reactions would be possible, and the predicted byproducts.

Do we believe that antimatter nucleon clusters are present as a parton (in the sense of Feynman) in the spacial confinement of the proton?

Do we believe in a close packed sheet model (in the sense of Thompson) or in an icosahedron model?

Do we believe 2-body fusion takes pace or does multibody predominate?

Do we have a self organized critical phenomena?

Do we favor supersymmetric mesons (as extensions of Klein-Gordon) or pions ( in the sense of Brightsen)?

I will study the model of the atomic nucleus by the late nuclear physicist R. Brightsen that views the proton as being the outcome of a quantum superposition of nucleon clusters. One form is to combine a matter [PNP] cluster with an antimatter [N^P^] cluster, where ^ = antimatter. The quantum outcome is a real [P] superposed state bound to an imaginary [NP][N^P^] state. In quark dynamics this resolves into a 6-antiquark bag (d^d^d^u^u^u^) rotating against a 9-quark matter bag (uuuuudddd)--that is, the concept of the nucleon and free quark disappears--the "bags" become the fundamental building blocks of nuclei. It is predicted that formation of colorless pions (d^u) or (u^d) allow for the matter and antimatter bags to bind (via interaction of positive mass and negative mass by gravity and antigravity), leaving (uud) = 1-H-1 (the proton) as the real quantum superposed (unbound) state that we observe. Thus the Brightsen model predicts potential for anti-baryon structure within 1-H-1, plus (important for low energy fusion reactions) that anti-deuteron structure is also part of the internal structure of 1-H-1.

**Some are applying this model to analyze the E-Cat:****(This excerpt is from comment 186 on the URL http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2011/12/the_nuclear_physics_of_why_we.php.****It continues the discussion begun in comment 180.)**The Brightsen Model predicts that beta stable isotopes are made of 2-mass nucleon clusters [NP](deuterium) and 3-mass clusters [PNP](He-3); [NPN](H-3 or tritium). Halo clusters [PP] and [NN] also possible and discussed by Brightsen. The selection rule of how to form any isotope is 3 [NP] = 1 [PNP]+ 1{NPN], this is why all isotopes can have many different possible nucleon cluster configurations (they are called isodynes). So, for example, stable 28-Ni-62 can be: 13[NP]+9[NPN]+3[PNP] or equally possible is the isodyne 1[NP]+13[NPN]+7[PNP]...they are both valid quantum probability wavefunctions of what we call 28-Ni-62 isotope. Many other nucleon cluster configurations also are possible for 28-Ni-62, including the presence of antimatter for all three of the fundamental 2 and 3 mass clusters. The way I try to understand the physical situation is to use the Richard Feynman 'sum-over-history' approach. Thus any isotope is the sum-over-history of all quantum nucleon cluster possibilities, the one we measure breaks the symmetry. So, if you ask, which of the many possible Brightsen nucleon cluster configurations represents 28-Ni-62, the Feynman answer is 'all of them'. The possible Brightsen nucleon cluster configurations can be determined for all 4400+ known beta stable and unstable isotopes from Z = 1 to 118.

Concerning the predictions of the Brightsen Model for the Rossi E-Cat, the previous post I made is a prediction based on statements of Mr. Rossi that no radioactive isotopes are present in the ash at the end of any E-Cat reaction. If this is a true statement, then there cannot be radioactive 28-Ni-59 isotope present in the ash, which there must be if there is an initial reaction of [P] from hydrogen gas with stable 28-Ni-58 isotope (e.g., the radioactive 28-Ni-59 would come from beta+ decay of 29-Cu-59, which is the direct byproduct of reaction of proton [P] with 28-Ni-58 in the powder). So, if it is true that there is no radioactive 28-Ni-59 in the ash of the E-Cat, then the Brightsen Model predicts why it is true, it predicts why a reaction of 28-Ni-58 with a proton [P] from hydrogen gas cannot occur, not at a level that would produce significant excess heat in the high MeV range. However, if we found that radioactive 28-Ni-59 is present in the ash of the E-Cat, then I would need to take a second look at the Brightsen Model to see how this might be explained based on the possible nucleon cluster configurations.

Concerning the 30% copper isotopes reported by some to be present in the ash of the E-Cat. If this is true, the Brightsen Model would predict that it is possible without any reaction of hydrogen gas with stable 28-Ni-58 isotope in the initial powder. We can get ~30% copper in ash from reaction with the four other stable Ni isotopes (Ni-60,61,62,64). The Brightsen Model would predict how each of these reactions would be possible, and the predicted byproducts.

Hello,

ReplyDeleteIt would be useful if you cited the blog reference where this information about the Brightsen Model was copied from.

Robert