Search This Blog

Friday, June 21, 2013

Adding up the "ands" in the World

The story of “and” and “also”.  I was wondering when "also" became "and", but I kept thinking about  taihuntaihundaukanhund or  10X10=100. Why can't language be like that?

Gothic                   jah  meaning “and”;  auk meaning “also” or "but", aukan meaning "to add", og meaning "I fear"
Finnish                 ja      (gotiikka vaikutus?)
Saxon                    and / ond / und   (various spellings all meaning “and’ as do the others below:)
Old Norsk            ok 
Gutnish                 u  from Gothic "uh"
Old Swedish       oc
Swedish                och
Danish, etc         og         (Norwegian, Icelandic,etc)
English                 and
French                  et
German                und
Italian                   e          (also in Portuguese, Galician, etc.)
Czech                     a          (also in Welsh or Cymraeg)
Swahili                  na
Spanish                 y         (и in Russian, Serbian, Macedonian, etc.;  i in Polish)
Bahasa Melayu   dan      (and in Indonesian)

Etymology of “also”
·         Old English: ēac
·         Middle English: eek, ek
·         Scots: eik, ek
·         English: eke
·         Old Frisian: āk
·         West Frisian: ek
·         Old Saxon: ōk
·         Middle Low German: ôk
·         Low German: ok, ook (generally 'also', but 'and' in Pomeranian dialects due to the influence Swedish exerted during Sweden's occupation of Pomerania)
·         Plautdietsch: uk
·         Old Dutch: ōk, ouk, ouch
·         Middle Dutch: ooc
·         Dutch: ook
·         Afrikaans: ook
·         Old High German: ouh
·         Middle High German: ouch
·         German: auch
·         Yiddish: אויך (oykh)
·         Old Norse: auk, ok meaning “and”
·         Icelandic: og, auk
·         Faroese: og
·         Norwegian: og, òg, au
·         Swedish: och, ock
·         Danish: og
·         Gothic: auk
meaning "and", "also", "for", "but", "however", or "when"
meaning "and"
meaning "and", "and yet", and "and further"
meaning "but", "however", "and", "moreover", and "also"
meaning "and", "and lastly", "both ... andas well as", "but", or "or"
meaning "and"
meaning "because", "and", "fact that", "now," "although", or "whereas"
meaning "and", or "to"
Greek epísi̱s
meaning “also”, “too”, “as well”, or “likewise”
επί πλέον
meaning “moreover”, “furthermore”, “also”, or “over and above”
·         Hebrew
also, either, and
כְּמוֹ כֵן
also, likewise, so, too
גַם כֵּן
also, as well, too

Etymology of “and” (note: “and” became confused with “but” in Icelandic and then “than” in Scandinavia)

·         Old English: and, end, ond  meaning “and”
·         Scots: an  meaning “and”
·         English: and
·         Old Frisian: and, ende meaning “and”
·         North Frisian: en
·         West Frisian: en, in
·         Old Saxon: endi meaning “and”
·         Middle Low German: ende, unde
·         Low German: on, un, unde
·         Plautdietsch: un, en
·         Old Dutch: indi, in, enda, ande, anda
·         Middle Dutch: ende, en meaning “and”
·         Dutch: en  meaning “and”
·         Afrikaans: en meaning “and“
·         Old High German: unti, inti, enti, unta
·         German: und  meaning “and“
·         Old Norse: enn
·         Icelandic: enn  (became “en“ meaning “but“)
·         Faroese: enn meaning ”than”
·         Norwegian: enn  meaning “than”
·         Swedish: än  meaning ”than”
·         Danish: end  meaning ”than”
Greek  και meaning ”and”
 meaning “and”
meaning “also”, “either”, or “and”

Tuesday, June 11, 2013

Wedding Ring Customs

  • In France, Protestant and Catholics usually wear their wedding rings on the left hand, but Orthodox wear it on the right.
  • In Orthodox countries, they usually wear it on the right hand.
  • In the United States, Egypt, Switzerland, Romania, and Sweden, it is usually worn on the left hand.
  • In Norway, Bulgaria, Austria, and Columbia, it is usually worn on the right hand.
  • In Germany and for Protestants in the Netherlands, the left hand usually indicates engagement and the right marriage. Catholics in the Netherlands wear the wedding ring on the left hand.
  • In the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, the wedding ring on the ring finger of the left hand is traditional among Roman Catholics living in the provinces of West Flanders and East Flanders and in part of Limburg, but not elsewhere.
  • In Sri Lanka, the groom usually wears it on the right hand and the bride on the left.
  • Regardless of where the ring is placed in the wedding ceremony, Jewish couples generally transfer it to the ring finger of the left hand afterwards.

Monday, June 3, 2013

Kensington Stone

There seem to be some obvious errors in the translation of the Kensington Stone. By obvious, I mean obvious to me. No one else apparently, ever considers that some words might be Gothic. The most important word of the first sentence is illegible, not blank. Eight Goths and Twenty-two Northmen at ???o.  The word, "ok", means the conjunction, "and". Therefore, "ōg" must mean "I fear" as in Gothic. I can't see why people would translate both as "and". Likewise, I don't see both "weþ" and "we" meaning "by".  I think  "weþ" means "with". Likewise, "from" could also be Gothic meaning "from" and "fro" could mean "fro" as in "to and fro".  Likewise,  Göter could mean Goths, but means Geats according to the Swedes.  I think þags is the genitive case and þagh means a day considered as a span of time, which derives from:

A day (considered as a span of time). Oldest form *ag̑h-, becoming *agh- in centum languages. day is from Old English dæg, day;

This is a transliteration of the stone:[1]
 8 : göter : ok : 22 : norrmen : po :
 ???o : opþagelsefarþ : fro :
 winlanþ : of : west : wi :
 haþe : läger : weþ : 2 : skjar : en :
 þags : rise : norr : fro : þeno : sten :
 wi : war : ok : fiske : en : þagh :
 äptir : wi : kom : hem : fan : 10 : man : röþe
 af : bloþ : og : þeþ : AVM :
 fräelse : af : illy :

The lateral (or side) text reads:[1]
här : 10 : mans : we : hawet : at : se:
äptir : wore : skip : 14 : þagh : rise :
from : þeno : öh : ahr : 1362

Here is my translation:

Eight Goths and twenty-two Northmen in the midst of stream discovery-journey going from Vinland due west. We had camped with two shelters one daytime's travel north this stone. We went and fish one day (span of time). After we come home,  found ten red men out of blood.  Foul deed.  AVM.  Deliver out of evil. 

There are ten seamen from the sea to look after our ships,  fourteen days (span of time) travel by this stream. Year of our Lord 1362. 

There are many translations, but mine is unique in many ways. 

Göter = old norse corruption of Gutþiuda meaning Goths

Norr = north

men = men

ok = and

po = "in the midst of"

fro = "going from" as in "to and fro"

winlanþ = the Viking name for New Foundland. In Leif Erikson's time it was warm enough to grow grapes.

"of  west" = "due west" or westward

wi = we

haþe =had or the past plural tense of have

läger = lair or camp

weþ = with

skjar = shelters

en = one or "a"

þags = daytime's as opposed to þagh which is a 24 hour span of time

rise = race or travel

þeno = this

sten = stone

war : ok : fiske = past tense of "go and fish"

äptir = after

kom  = come

hem = "to home"

fan = (one) found

man : röþe = plural of redman or redmen

af = out of

bloþ = blood

ōg = (I) fear

 þeþ = deed

AVM = Hail Mary

"fräelse : af : illy" = quote from the Lord's Prayer

hawet = (of) the sea

 ōh = stream (as a means of travel)

ahr = abbreviation for "year of our Lord"

Everyone else seems to think that "ōg" means "and" and "ōh" means "island" while I hold to the very dubious view that "ōh" means "å" and "ōg" means "I fear".  It could be that "þeþ" means deed rather than death if it is Gothic. Then "ōg : þeþ" would mean "Foul Deed", the opposite of "Waila : þeþ". 

Any ideas on a more accurate translation would be appreciated.