Search This Blog

Saturday, January 28, 2012

Avoiding Junk Food

An example of good nutritional advice:



An example of bad nutritional advice:


The real reason people are obese is that they cannot tell the difference.

  • One way to get proper nutrition is through imitation.
  • There is obviously no to get an education in nutrition equivalent to someone who has researched it for a lifetime.
  • Some researchers are recognized as the leading researchers. 
  • Some researchers apply what they preach in their own life.
  • Some researchers are demonstrably healthy.
  • My conclusion from all of this is that imitating them is the best way to pursue healthy nutrition. The following video is the best example of this that I could find. If anyone has a better example, please comment. I would appreciate knowing.


The Future of Montana

I have met many wonderful people from Montana.  What interested me about this video is the remarks about Montana.

Friday, January 27, 2012

Collisions with Comets

  • There is evidence to suggest that the surface of some comets might contain carbon fullerenes filled with helium-3 and argon. There is also evidence indicating that the upper layer of the coma has temperatures of about 2.5 million degrees. This suggests that in the event of a collision with of the comet with something, these layers might mix producing a nuclear reaction.  That much seems obvious to me, but I have not seen any conjectures about the possibility. Hopefully, the Threat Assessment Board has had the National Labs look into it. The carbon fullerenes filled with helium-3 and argon could easily be send to the Labs to explore this. The telltale fullerenes containing helium and argon were extracted from sites in Japan, China and Hungary, where the sedimentary layer at the boundary between the Permian and Triassic periods had been exposed. They have been found all over the U.S.A. in the layer dating to 10,900 B.C. They were also found in the debris from the June 30, 1908 explosion in Tunguska, Siberia. The nanodiamonds encased in carbon do not come from the comet, but rather from tree sap that was vaporized in the oxygen free environment of the explosion.
  • It has been theorized that 10,900 B.C. event broke up the ice sheet diverting runoff water flow north quickly cooling the oceans by switching of the north Atlantic drift current. In the Permian boundary event, it is theorized that this might have cracked the Earth’s crust causing continent wide volcanic eruptions cooling the Earth over a long period. Perhaps the rapid cooling prevented the total extinction of animals.

Thursday, January 26, 2012


Some comets were discovered by looking for their X-ray spectrum.  About 2000 comets have been discovered in total. The X-ray spectrum of a comet arises from bremsstrahlung occurring in the thin corona boundary (bow shock) of the atmosphere (usually, called the coma) of the comet. The corona is oriented toward the sun.  The spectrum corresponds to a temperature of 2.5 million degrees. The corresponding effect in the corona of the sun represents a temperature of 2 million degrees.  This spectrum of the comet and sun is dominated by the ions, i.e., protons, alphas, oxygen ions, etc., emitted from the sun rather than the composition the corona. 

Comets have two tails.  The bluish one, mostly outside human visual range, is generated by the pressure of the solar wind on Comet's magnetosphere. The yellowish white one is generated from dust, carbon dioxide and other volatiles emitted from jets.

Comets may have exploded in the vicinity of the earth.  Fullerenes containing noble gases including helium-3 and argon have been discovered in the debris layers arising from the major terrestrial explosions thought to have due to comets.  The nonterrestrial isotopic composition of the debris is the reason that the debris is attributed to comets.  Ten years ago, water was found trapped within salt crystals in a meteorite.  There were bubbles trapped in the water.  We are still waiting for someone for someone to analyze the gas in the bubbles.  Amino acids have also been detected in meteorites.

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

Proton Capture and p-n Reactions

I was wondering what those 6-7 MEV protons observed by Piantelli would do, since they is much lower than the 14.2 MeV thought to be required for capture. Even if it just a side effect, it is worth knowing. I found this article which seems to provide some answers and may be worth buying:

Phys. Rev. 54, 1021–1025 (1938)

Proton Induced Radioactivities II. Nickel and Copper Targets

Download:PDF (376 kB) Buy this articleExport:BibTeX or EndNote (RIS)

Charles V. Strain
The University of Rochester, Rochester, New York
Received 14 October 1938; published in the issue dated December 1938
Nickel bombarded with 6.3-Mev protons shows activities of half-lives of 10.5±0.6 min., 3.4±0.3 hr., and 12.8±0.8 hr., corresponding to known periods of Cu62, Cu61 and Cu64, respectively. The reactions are principally of the p-n type but there is evidence that in the case of Cu62 proton capture occurs at energies below the p-n threshold. The maximum β-ray energies obtained by absorption method are 2.8, 1.2 and 0.68 Mev for Cu62, Cu61 and Cu64, respectively. Thick target excitation curves are given. Copper bombarded with 6.3-Mev protons shows two activities of half-lives 38.3±0.5 min. and 235±20 days due to Zn63 and Zn65, respectively. Both must be formed by p-n reactions. The Zn63 positrons have a maximum energy of 2.3±0.15 Mev. Thick target excitation curve shows a threshold proton energy of 4.1±0.1 Mev in good agreement with the energy relations. Average (thick target) cross section for the Cu63(p-n)Zn63 reaction is 0.28×10-25 cm2. For protons of energy 6.1 Mev it is 0.95×10-25 cm.
© 1938 The American Physical Society

Types of commercial heat producing reactors

Generation III Reactors

Generation IV Reactors

Thorium Reactors 

ASFEE Reactors
Anharmonically Stimulated Fusion with the Emission of Energy (ASFEE) comes from the Italian:

Fusione Anarmonica  Stimolata con Emisione di Calore (FASEC)

There is an alternative theory of electronic structure called Density Functional Theory which is based in which the electron density distribution rather than the multi-electron wave function plays a central role.
The research of Franco Bassani lead to the scientific breakthroughs in the photo physics of color centers in ionic crystals, the linear and nonlinear optical properties of semiconductors and insulating materials and the theory of excitons and polaritons in semiconductor low-dimensional systems.

Density Functional Theory — an introduction

The 9 Dec. 2011 NASA Slide Show

Saturday, January 21, 2012

Goals of Nuclear Research

The earliest of the recorded motives for nuclear research was the quest to understand the universe. This was followed by a desire to produce gold.  It was supposedly accomplished by turning mercury into gold using platinum as a catalyst. Diocletian ordered the ancient Egyptian writings destroyed to prevent this.  The sale of gold must be reported, but there are exceptions like jewelry.  This motivation was followed by the desire to see in the dark.  An example would be coating the hands of an analogue watch or clock with radium.  The radium gas found in basements with unsealed walls and inadequate ventilation is much more dangerous.  

In the 1920’s, there was the desire to fly by producing helium for use in dirigibles.  The chief methods tried were electrolytic, high voltage discharge and finally using thorium to irradiate paraffin.  However, insufficient helium was produced.  Gaseous hydrogen methods using nickel, palladium or asbestos were used.  C. D. Darwin worked out the mathematics of electromagnetic fields involved.  This research along with Einstein’s Theory immediately prompted research into generating heat and electricity. Finally, the research degenerated into weapon production, U-233 bombs, U-235 bombs, plutonium bombs, hydrogen bombs and finally neutron bombs.  

Teller observed muon catalyzed fusion in a bubble chamber.  Many other types of nuclear reactions were observed at less than the expected energy levels.  However, research into safe forms of nuclear power is discouraged by vested interests. Work on the next generation of fast reactors—clean, resource-efficient, waste-reducing reactors—was halted by Congress in September 1994 and the missions of the National Labs were redirected by the Department of Energy.  

The nation’s supply of U-233 was consolidated at Oak Ridge. Some is being turned into Zero Power Reactor plates. These and U-233 oxide materials are presently being dispersed to various facilities.  Thorium reactor advocates claim that this is a waste of the U-233 which could have been used as a safer nuclear fuel. About 17% of the dangerous waste from a Thorium reactor would still take about 300 years to decay naturally. The depleted uranium, U-234, is being used for artillery shells that disperse it into the atmosphere when fired. Enriched uranium, U-235, is used in nuclear reactors with safety and nuclear proliferation issues arising from the dangerous isotopes produced.  One quarter million tons of nuclear waste has been produced.  Just like the petroleum industry, waste is dispersed or hidden rather than being cleaned up.  Calcium supplementation and white bread were promoted to minimize the intake of radioactive isotopes. In extreme cases where short lived isotopes are present, iodine supplementation is needed.

Wednesday, January 18, 2012

This is an interview with Andrea Rossi in Bologna, Italy on the 12th of January 2012.
Of the 500 some theories that attempt to describe the "Cold Fusion" phenomena, Mr. Krivit lists the following:

 Bazhutov-Vereshkov Theory

 Chubb (Scott) Theory

 Chubb ( Talbot) Theory

 De Ninno Theory

 Fisher Theory

 Gareev Theory

 Hagelstein Theory

 Hora-Miley Theory

 Kim-Zubarev Theory

 Kirkinskii-Novikov Theory

 Kozima Theory

 Li Theory

 Sinha-Meulenberg Theory

 Szpak Theory

 Takahashi Theory

Consequently, I plan to look elsewhere. The source of the anomalous heat from the E-Cat is supposedly unknown. So, whether it comes from pion decay, mesons, positrons, etc., or whatever reaction type and force, one might as well continue to call it "cold fusion" until this is clarified.

Tuesday, January 17, 2012

The Brightsen Model and the E-Cat

To determine nuclear structure, one uses nonlinear spectroscopy to determine the dynamics of the system.  However, to use nonlinear spectroscopy, one needs a model of the system. 

Do we believe that antimatter nucleon clusters are present as a parton (in the sense of Feynman) in the spacial confinement of the proton?

Do we believe in a close packed sheet model (in the sense of Thompson) or in an icosahedron model?

Do we believe 2-body fusion takes pace or does multibody predominate?

Do we have a self organized critical phenomena?

Do we favor supersymmetric mesons (as extensions of Klein-Gordon) or pions ( in the sense of Brightsen)?

I will study the model of the atomic nucleus by the late nuclear physicist R. Brightsen that views the proton as being the outcome of a quantum superposition of nucleon clusters. One form is to combine a matter [PNP] cluster with an antimatter [N^P^] cluster, where ^ = antimatter. The quantum outcome is a real [P] superposed state bound to an imaginary [NP][N^P^] state. In quark dynamics this resolves into a 6-antiquark bag (d^d^d^u^u^u^) rotating against a 9-quark matter bag (uuuuudddd)--that is, the concept of the nucleon and free quark disappears--the "bags" become the fundamental building blocks of nuclei. It is predicted that formation of colorless pions (d^u) or (u^d) allow for the matter and antimatter bags to bind (via interaction of positive mass and negative mass by gravity and antigravity), leaving (uud) = 1-H-1 (the proton) as the real quantum superposed (unbound) state that we observe. Thus the Brightsen model predicts potential for anti-baryon structure within 1-H-1, plus (important for low energy fusion reactions) that anti-deuteron structure is also part of the internal structure of 1-H-1.

Some are applying this model to analyze the E-Cat:

(This excerpt is from comment 186 on the URL
It continues the discussion begun in comment 180.)

The Brightsen Model predicts that beta stable isotopes are made of 2-mass nucleon clusters [NP](deuterium) and 3-mass clusters [PNP](He-3); [NPN](H-3 or tritium). Halo clusters [PP] and [NN] also possible and discussed by Brightsen. The selection rule of how to form any isotope is 3 [NP] = 1 [PNP]+ 1{NPN], this is why all isotopes can have many different possible nucleon cluster configurations (they are called isodynes). So, for example, stable 28-Ni-62 can be: 13[NP]+9[NPN]+3[PNP] or equally possible is the isodyne 1[NP]+13[NPN]+7[PNP]...they are both valid quantum probability wavefunctions of what we call 28-Ni-62 isotope. Many other nucleon cluster configurations also are possible for 28-Ni-62, including the presence of antimatter for all three of the fundamental 2 and 3 mass clusters. The way I try to understand the physical situation is to use the Richard Feynman 'sum-over-history' approach. Thus any isotope is the sum-over-history of all quantum nucleon cluster possibilities, the one we measure breaks the symmetry. So, if you ask, which of the many possible Brightsen nucleon cluster configurations represents 28-Ni-62, the Feynman answer is 'all of them'. The possible Brightsen nucleon cluster configurations can be determined for all 4400+ known beta stable and unstable isotopes from Z = 1 to 118.
Concerning the predictions of the Brightsen Model for the Rossi E-Cat, the previous post I made is a prediction based on statements of Mr. Rossi that no radioactive isotopes are present in the ash at the end of any E-Cat reaction. If this is a true statement, then there cannot be radioactive 28-Ni-59 isotope present in the ash, which there must be if there is an initial reaction of [P] from hydrogen gas with stable 28-Ni-58 isotope (e.g., the radioactive 28-Ni-59 would come from beta+ decay of 29-Cu-59, which is the direct byproduct of reaction of proton [P] with 28-Ni-58 in the powder). So, if it is true that there is no radioactive 28-Ni-59 in the ash of the E-Cat, then the Brightsen Model predicts why it is true, it predicts why a reaction of 28-Ni-58 with a proton [P] from hydrogen gas cannot occur, not at a level that would produce significant excess heat in the high MeV range. However, if we found that radioactive 28-Ni-59 is present in the ash of the E-Cat, then I would need to take a second look at the Brightsen Model to see how this might be explained based on the possible nucleon cluster configurations.
Concerning the 30% copper isotopes reported by some to be present in the ash of the E-Cat. If this is true, the Brightsen Model would predict that it is possible without any reaction of hydrogen gas with stable 28-Ni-58 isotope in the initial powder. We can get ~30% copper in ash from reaction with the four other stable Ni isotopes (Ni-60,61,62,64). The Brightsen Model would predict how each of these reactions would be possible, and the predicted byproducts.

The Brightsen Model

The late Ronald Brightson (Clustron Sciences) presented theoretical and experimental evidence for the validity of his own "Nucleon Cluster Model" (NCM), which predicts that a relatively low-energy photon can promote a nuclear reaction under certain specific conditions. Brightson analyzed the periodicities and systematics of atomic numbers and masses and deduced that all b-stable nuclides are composed of deuterons (NP clusters), tritons (NPN), and He3(PNP) nuclei.

Brighton's patent application includes a method of remediating nuclear waste by the induction of fission in the radioactive isotopes. The imposition of an external magnetic field that is in resonance with the magnetic moment of a particular nucleon cluster (NP, NPN, PNP) can excite the select cluster (without disturbing other clusters in the target) to burst from the nucleus and perform a transmutation to daughter products of smaller mass and greater stability.

According to his NCM theory, the by-products that will be released from the 28-Ni-62 + H reaction will be pure stable 29-Cu-63 isotope plus neutral pions that will quickly decay (within ~70 nano sec)into low energy gamma ray energy that will heat the water within the E-Cat. Positive and negative pions will also be produced and will be trapped within the walls of the E-Cat before they can decay into matter and antimatter neutrinos and electrons and positrons. Thus the model predicts low energy gamma rays from decay of neutral pions are produced within the E-Cat and that this is the energy that "heats the water". The energy from positive and negative pions that also are produced within the E-cat is absorbed within the metal lattice structure of the E-Cat device. If the reaction is conducted over extended time, H gas will interact with the produced 29-Cu-63 to form stable 30 Zn 64 isotope. Given that the capture reaction cross section in barns (at ~0.025 eV energy) for interaction of H proton with 28-Ni-62 is ~3x greater than interaction with 29-Cu-63, no mass 65 Zn isotope is expected in the ash of the E-Cat until all the 28-Ni-62 is depleted.

The Brightsen Model predicts low energy fusion of {Ni-64 + H} and {Ni-62 + H}
will produce stable isotopes of copper (Cu-65 and Cu-63, respectively), with
no release of any radioactive isotopes, but large amount of energy due to a
matter + antimatter cluster fusion.  The Brightsen Model predicts that

many different nucleon clusters are present in Ni isotopes, but only
one of them (the deuterium [NP] cluster) is available
outside a closed shell to interact with the hydrogen reactant.  This may be
the reason why so little hydrogen is used in the Rossi reaction--it must be
very difficult to get the two required matter and antimatter nucleon
clusters to resonate against each other so as to fuse, one cluster each from
Ni and H.

Monday, January 16, 2012

The Truth about "Cold Fusion" Research

Link to the University of Cambridge Video

You sometimes find information in places you would never expect. The book, Before the Big Bang: The Origins of the Universe, by Ernest J. Sternglass contains an inspiring history of certain aspects of reseach into "cold fusion" or whatever you choose to call this phenomena.

Saturday, January 14, 2012

The History of the Development of the E-Cat

The following Transcription and Translation of “TEDxBologna – Sergio Focardi – L’E-cat e la fusione nucleare con il Nichel e l’Idrogeno “ is released under Public Domain by its author Mirco Romanato its author.

00:24 The talk I want to do, I’m starting from the origin, is about what today is called Cold Fusion.
00:30 It started around 22 years ago when an American researcher, an American chemist, stated to have produced energy using a nuclear fusion process obtained using Palladium, a metal, and Deuterium, a heavy Hydrogen.
01:00 After this, many started to work on his path, and after 22 years they have not obtained big results.
01:11 For what regard me, with a friend of the Siena University, decided to work in the same way but using Hydrogen and Nickel and obtained a number of results: production of energy by interactions between Hydrogen and Nickel
01:30 Following this I restarted the work with the Engineer Rossi and we started to work on the same path: building system able to produce energy using hydrogen and nickel
01:54 Now, what we can see are the results of this work.
02:07 There are, this is the first picture, this is one of the first experiments done with Engineer Rossi
02:20 And you can see, at right, there is a small red bucket, containing water and some materials and left the hydrogen canister used to put hydrogen inside this capsule where we had put the nickel.
02:50 Heating together nickel and hydrogen we obtained energy and, as result the heating of the water.
02:58 The experiment is, obviously, very crude, because it was not worth, for this experiment to build more refined objects.
03:10 This is the next experiment. This time, instead of the bucket of water, there is that donut-like object to the right where some water circulated and there was the capsule containing nickel and hydrogen.
03:35 The tube you see at the lower right is to bring hydrogen, at the center there is a canister of hydrogen, and in this way we obtained a confirmation about the previous experiment with a cleaner
system than the previous.
03:53 The third picture, it is another, third, method to measure. This time there is a closed circuit. You are able to see well, in the background at the right, the tube, where is inserted the cylinder, again at the right. In the tube some water was circulated. In this cylinder happen this heating process and it is a nuclear reaction between nickel and hydrogen
04:30 and what we observed experimentally was the difference of temperature between the two extremes of the cylinder
04:37 So, the three experiments confirmed that the system was really able to produce energy under the form of heat. We obtained the heating of the water.
05:00 This it was one of the latter objects built by the Engineer Rossi, that take the name of e-cat, where “cat” is a shorthand for catalyzer, that is used usually and currently, to experiment with the reaction between nickel and hydrogen and produce heat. And the heat produced is demonstrated heating water with various devices and this is one example.
05:50 Now, this is the next product built by Engineer Rossi, again based to the same process, similar to a train wagon (NdR a shipping container) but smaller. Inside we see some boxes and everyone is a generator producing the same effects I described before.
06:31 making work together all these elements, we would have 1 MW of power produced
06:45 This was not already started with all the generators together; it will be before the end of this month. At this time we can say there is a change in the sizes we are talking about. But every box we can see is like the old generators we used to react hydrogen and nickel to obtain heat.
07:17 This is clearly a nuclear reaction as in the experiments we did – we are doing them by two years, two years and half, I don’t remember the exact date we started. At the end of the experiment, when we analyze the materials used, the material put in the capsule, that originally was nickel and hydrogen we find again nickel but also copper.
07:57 Now, the copper is the element following nickel on the periodic scale. It is at its side and the nucleus of copper differ from the nucleus of nickel only because it have a single proton more. Proton that was introduced, captured, by the nickel in a process of nuclear reaction. So when we affirm this is a nuclear reaction between nickel and hydrogen, this is another proof it is not a fantastic statement. We have the proofs, because as result in the end copper is formed.
08:43 Now, one of the problems when we talk about these topics is the problem of safety. And, in this case the danger for the safety is the radioactivity, because being a nuclear reaction people foresee radioactivity emitted in the reaction. This is real, but we are lucky this process produce only gamma rays and not neutrons. I must say I pointed to the danger of neutrons from the start with the collaboration with Rossi; and Rossi, obviously, took the measures needed because, if there would be neutrons, the things would be difficult, because neutrons can be shielded but it is not a simple problem. Luckily there are not neutrons. But there are gamma rays. The presence of gamma ray I have experienced directly, in the first experiments in the laboratory Rossi had in Bondeno, because often I did the measures when Rossi was occupied doing his bidding. I, in the first measures used an instrument detecting radioactivity and measured the gamma rays. Not very dangerous, not big compared to the normal background, but anyway present. And it is obvious there was no reason to raise the natural radioactivity level.
10:40 But we never detected neutrons as this was my main fear because neutron are difficult to shield. But hey never showed. The problem of the gamma rays was solved simply adding, around the generators, small sheet of lead that are able to shield the gamma ray. So we can say, there is no risk of radioactivity when we work in this way. This is good not only for us but for when there will be commercial applications.

Thursday, January 12, 2012

The MIT Course in Cold Fusion

After listening to MIT explain that the sticking point with solar technology is finding a way to funnel the profits to the big oil companies, I image the situation with cold fusion is pretty much the same.

Cold Fusion 101: Introduction to Excess Power in Fleischmann-Pons Experiments
Peter Hagelstein
Mon-Fri, Jan 23-27, 30-31, 11am-12:30pm, 4-145, 1/30 class meets in 4-149
No enrollment limit, no advance sign up

Excess power production in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment; lack of confirmation in early negative experiments; theoretical problems and Huizenga's three miracles; physical chemistry of PdD; electrochemistry of PdD; loading requirements on excess power production; the nuclear ash problem and He-4 observations; approaches to theory; screening in PdD; PdD as an energetic particle detector; constraints on the alpha energy from experiment; overview of theoretical approaches; coherent energy exchange between mismatched quantum systems; coherent x-rays in the Karabut experiment and interpretation; excess power in the NiH system; Piantelli experiment; prospects for a new small scale clean nuclear energy technology.

On 1/30 and 1/31 M. Swartz will discuss results he has obtained from a variety of cold fusion experiments he has done over the years. He has observed excess power in PdD and in NiH experiments; typical energy gains in the range of 2-3 are seen, with a few experiments giving higher energy gain; he has carried out a demonstration of his experiment previously at MIT; and energy produced from cold fusion reactions has been used to drive a Stirling engine.
Contact: Peter Hagelstein,
Sponsor: Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Relation to Cold Fusion

In the period before heat generation starts in Ni-H cold fusion, photon emission or a burst of gammas is produced lending some credence to the idea that surface plasmon polaritons may be involved in initiating the reaction. I am not sure what they mean by whiskers in the following patent. Do their whiskers include the tubules in sintered nickel? It is so ambiguous, it is hard to see if covers Rossi's E-Cat, Piantelli's stimulation or my hypothetical idea about a metastable graphane state and using nickel nanotubes.  Lawyers do not comprehend enough physics to make sense out of patents in any case. I wonder how NASA figured out the significance of carbon.  Do they have secret experiments, industrial espionage or are they just guessing? The moral to the story: It is easy to make a proton from a neutron, but getting a neutron from a proton is another matter!

Letter abstract

Nature Physics 5, 470 - 474 (2009)
Published online: 17 May 2009 | doi:10.1038/nphys1278

Wave–particle duality of single surface plasmon polaritons

Roman Kolesov1, Bernhard Grotz1, Gopalakrishnan Balasubramanian1, Rainer J. Stöhr1, Aurélien A. L. Nicolet1, Philip R. Hemmer2, Fedor Jelezko1 & Jörg Wrachtrup1
When light interacts with metal surfaces, it excites electrons, which can form propagating excitation waves called surface plasmon polaritons. These collective electronic excitations can produce strong electric fields localized to subwavelength distance scales1, which makes surface plasmon polaritons interesting for several applications. Many of these potential uses, and in particular those related to quantum networks2, require a deep understanding of the fundamental quantum properties of surface plasmon polaritons. Remarkably, these collective electron states preserve many key quantum mechanical properties of the photons used to excite them, including entanglement3, 4 and sub-Poissonian statistics5. Here, we show that a single-photon source coupled to a silver nanowire excites single surface plasmon polaritons that exhibit both wave and particle properties, similar to those of single photons. Furthermore, the detailed analysis of the spectral interference pattern provides a new method to characterize the dimensions of metallic waveguides with nanometre accuracy.
  1. 3. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart, Germany
  2. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, 77843 College Station, USA
Correspondence to: Fedor Jelezko1 e-mail:
Correspondence to: Jörg Wrachtrup1 e-mail:

Cold Fusion Simply Explained

The “Cold Fusion” phenomena, as embodied in Rossi’s E-Cat, Piantelli and Defkalion’s devices, is the safest, least expensive, cleanest, and most reliable source of energy yet available for use by mankind. When the reaction is turned off, the emissions of protons, as well as, alpha, beta and gamma rays last only up to twenty minutes. Like the origin of cosmic rays, ferromagnetism, high temperature superconductors, etc., the mechanisms behind the phenomena is not yet understood. Perhaps some day after the physics embodied in these phenomena is understood; more appropriate names will be embraced by the general population. However, the current practice whereby different experimental or theoretical groups give these phenomena their own pet names just adds to the confusion.
Christos Stremmenos' Declaration

Wednesday, January 11, 2012

Is this a joke?

Theorem:  Spacetime has two spacelike dimensions at our current location in spacetime.

Proof: Modern day physics is based on Quantum Theory.  Quantum Theory is incompatible with gravity in three spacelike dimensions. To describe gravity one must look at the Poincare dual which has one less spacelike dimension, i.e., two rather than three.  Hence, the third spacelike dimension is unphysical. Of course, it is possible to use frameworks like the M-theory framework utilizing additional unphysical dimensions.  But this is irrelevant, since at the present time, the only realistic theory that utilizes this framework is Quantum Theory.  QED (at our current location).

Hypothesis: There must be something wrong with the way mathematics is taught in schools, if some students cannot imagine spacetime as having only two dimensions plus time.

Question: How do you visualize the chiral structure of graphene and time reversal symmetry?  Can you visualize one layer of graphene being deposited on another in such a way as to retain the symmetries, but reduce the propagation speed of the charge conductors?  Can you image graphene being made into nanotubes as a two dimension material being transformed into a one dimensional material? Can you imagine a nanoplatelet of graphane oscillating between the annealed and annealed state travelling through a light hydrogen filled, enriched nickel nanotube?  Would you gasp if your best friend asked you these questions? Why???

Saturday, January 7, 2012

A little nonsense to amuse myself

To me, “Swea Rike” sounds like the Gothic, sweareiki, meaning “my own realm”. In Swedish the equivalent would be “Egen Rike”.  Where does Sverige come from?  It seems like they added a suffix.  It reminds me that, in   Welsh, they add a suffix to ”cymry” (which means my country or countrymen) yielding “cymraeg” (those who speak our language).  However in Swedish, one who speaks the language is “svenska” while Sverige is the country. Likewise, where does Sweden come from? I heard it comes from English. How can this be? Maybe “den” refers to the lowlands, as it does in Denmark. Maybe, none of this is true but it helps me to remember the ever changing meanings.

The Swedes have a myth that they conquered the Goths, i.e., gutþiudai meaning Gothic people, but it actually was the Getes.  Maybe the Swedes were actually the Goths and just changed their language and invented the myth to fool everyone.  They further complicated the situation by forming a myth about being descended from the Getes.  Some believe the Swedes are actually descended from the Thracians.  In their histories however, the Goths are clear that together with the Greeks, they totally routed the Thracians at the Battle of Troy.  Did the Thracians ultimately return to avenge their defeat or is this just another ruse to through us off the track.  You may have heard tales of Vikings and suppose that Swedes are descended from them.  Just ask a Swede though and they will tell you that Vikings were just a myth. By now, you like I, may not care where they came from, but I do hope they will my little island from time to time.

Another thing that seems odd to me is that “Frizon” reminds me “frijon” in Gothic.  What would be a better name for the largest Christian festival than the Gothic verb meaning “to love”? 

1. Words shown to be Celtic loanwords by the Celtic sound change *
ē > *ī.
īk- ‘king’ (cf. Goth. reiks ‘ruler’), *rīkiją ‘kingdom’ (cf. Goth. reiki, ON ríki, OE rīċe,
rīhhi) PCelt. *rīg- ‘king’ (cf. Gaulish -rīx, -rīg- in names recorded by
Caesar; OIr.
rí, ríg-), *rīgiom ‘kingdom’ (cf. OIr. ríge) < PIE *(H)rēǵ- ‘king’
(cf. Lat. rēx, rēg-, Skt. rā́jā, Rigvedic also rā́)

2. Words which might be Celtic loans or shared inheritances.

*frijaz ‘free’ (cf. Goth. freis, OE frīo, OHG frī) < *priyos; PCelt. *rios > Welsh rhydd;
both words are reflexes of PIE *priHós ‘dear, beloved’ (cf. Skt. priyás), but the
unexpected semantic development to ‘free’ is peculiar to Germanic and Celtic

Friday, January 6, 2012

Mimmi och Mojje - vampyrernas återkomst

This is my Swedish lesson for today. Del 7 av 10. Anders och Robins jakt på spöket fortsätter. Tjejerna kommer allt närmre sanningen om huset och vem Buster är. De beslutar sig för att åka tillbaka till huset och rädda Mimmi. Mimmi%20&%20Mojje%20-%20vampyrernas%20%C3%A5terkomst%20del%207 Del 8 av 10. Mimmi och Mojje kommer på sanningen om Buster. Frågan är om de kommer kunna övertyga Lisa och stoppa greven för att lyckas med sina onda planer. Mimmi%20&%20Mojje%20-%20vampyrernas%20%C3%A5terkomst%20del%208 Del 9 av 10. Mimmi, Mojje och Lisa försöker uppehålla greven medan tjejerna snokar igenom hans kontor. Mimmi%20&%20Mojje%20-%20vampyrernas%20%C3%A5terkomst%20del%209 Sista delen. Del 10 av 10. Greven har boken och kan nu när som helst genomföra sin plan. Frågan är om Mimmi och Mojje kommer att lyckas stoppa honom. Mimmi%20&%20Mojje%20-%20vampyrernas%20%C3%A5terkomst%20del%2010

Wednesday, January 4, 2012

An Interview with Andrea Rossi

     I listened to an interview with Andrea Rossi.  He is currently manufacturing 1Megawatt units. He hopes to have the smaller home unit certified in the U.S. by this fall and is in negotiation with Home depot to market it. He hopes to have a unit that sells between $1000 and $1500 dollars.  He wants to mass produce it in quantity of up to one million units the first year at a price to low for anyone to try to compete with him.  He sees it as an add-on to existing heating and cooling systems.  When consumers buy a unit, they can specify who maintains their present system.  Rossi's company will then contact the maintainer with installation info to see if they will install it. If not, his company will find someone else.  He is concentrating on marketing it in the U.S. and after that in Europe.  He says that original unit will be upgradable to the features that will become available in later units like generating electricity.  He thinks the technology will be used in boats and ships, but thinks it may take a long time to reach the automobile. Here is the link to the interview:

Today's Swedish Lesson

                HAR EN DRÖM

Har en dröm om att hitta hem och att jag ska välja rätt.
Har en tillit till framtiden som gör min börda lätt.

Det finns en sol som värmar mig när min natt har varit kall och svår.
Och den kärlek jag får av dig, føljar mig vart jag går.

Har en dröm om gemenskapen, att min hand ska nå din hand.
Att vi kämpar för det samma jag, att vi ska hitta fram.

Det finns en sol som värmar mig när min natt har varit kall och svår.
Och den kärlek jag får av dig, føljar mig vart jag går.

Det liv som vi har, ska fargas av ljus och mörka dar.
Och den tid vi har, den är kort men den är vår.

Har en dröm att vi människor lyckas skapa fred en dag.
Visar att det är godheten som är vårt rette jag.

Det finns en sol som värmar mig när min natt har varit kall och svår.
Och den kärlek jag får av dig, føljar mig vart jag går.

Det finns en sol som värmar mig när min natt har varit kall och svår.
Och den kärlek jag får av dig, føljar mig vart jag går.

Jag känner ro
känner ro och tålamod
Det känns som jag är trygg
när jag tänker på allt vi får
Der är nåt mer
än den vackraste dröm jag haft
fast jag inte har møtt dig än

Det finns et liv
det finns en plats som är för mig
den känner jag igen
För då har jag jo kommit hem
Det är ett annat liv
och jag lever för det jag vet
Att du kommer med kärleken
Det är du och jag vet att du finns nånstans
Fast jag inte har møtt dig än

Mitt liv blir helt när du är här
jag går dit du vill
och jag är dig alltid nära

Och jag blir varm
när jag tänker på allt vi är
och vår kärlek som är så stor
Jag är trygg för jag vet hur mitt liv skall bli
Jag vill alltid följa dig
följa dig

Monday, January 2, 2012

Rossi's Patent Application

U.S. Cold Fusion Patent

Application number: 12/736,193
Publication number: US 2011/0005506 A1
Filing date: Aug 4, 2009

Hungarian Cold Fusion Research

This is an interview with György Egely recorded on 12 August 2011, in Hungary.