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Thursday, November 25, 2010

Room Temperature BECs

One would think you should should be able to apply the concept illustrated in this paper to the production of efficient solar cells.

Nature 468, 545-548 (25 November 2010) | doi:10.1038/nature09567; Received 12 July 2010; Accepted 6 October 2010; Published online 24 November 2010

Bose–Einstein condensation of photons in an optical microcavity
Jan Klaers, Julian Schmitt, Frank Vewinger & Martin Weitz

1.Institut für Angewandte Physik, Universität Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, 53115 Bonn, Germany
Correspondence to: Martin Weitz Email:

Abstract: Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC)—the macroscopic ground-state accumulation of particles with integer spin (bosons) at low temperature and high density—has been observed in several physical systems1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, including cold atomic gases and solid-state quasiparticles. However, the most omnipresent Bose gas, blackbody radiation (radiation in thermal equilibrium with the cavity walls) does not show this phase transition. In such systems photons have a vanishing chemical potential, meaning that their number is not conserved when the temperature of the photon gas is varied10; at low temperatures, photons disappear in the cavity walls instead of occupying the cavity ground state. Theoretical works have considered thermalization processes that conserve photon number (a prerequisite for BEC), involving Compton scattering with a gas of thermal electrons11 or photon–photon scattering in a nonlinear resonator configuration12, 13. Number-conserving thermalization was experimentally observed14 for a two-dimensional photon gas in a dye-filled optical microcavity, which acts as a ‘white-wall’ box. Here we report the observation of a Bose–Einstein condensate of photons in this system. The cavity mirrors provide both a confining potential and a non-vanishing effective photon mass, making the system formally equivalent to a two-dimensional gas of trapped, massive bosons. The photons thermalize to the temperature of the dye solution (room temperature) by multiple scattering with the dye molecules. Upon increasing the photon density, we observe the following BEC signatures: the photon energies have a Bose–Einstein distribution with a massively populated ground-state mode on top of a broad thermal wing; the phase transition occurs at the expected photon density and exhibits the predicted dependence on cavity geometry; and the ground-state mode emerges even for a spatially displaced pump spot. The prospects of the observed effects include studies of extremely weakly interacting low-dimensional Bose gases9 and new coherent ultraviolet sources15.

1.Institut für Angewandte Physik, Universität Bonn, Wegelerstrasse 8, 53115 Bonn, Germany
Correspondence to: Martin Weitz Email:


Jul på Liseberg


Wednesday, November 24, 2010


Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), otherwise known as methoxatin, is an essential, water-soluble, redox-cofactor vitamin which ordinarily does not pass the blood-brain barrier. It has to be bound to glycine to penetrate and effect the brain. It has been shown to be essential for normal growth and development. PQQ is mostly contained in common foods; especially, in natto, tea, papayas, and kiwi fruits, in comparatively in large quantities. A dose of 20 mg per day of PQQ has been shown to be beneficial.

Spin, isospin and baryon number

arXiv: physics/0108005v230 Aug 2001 Impulse Gravity Generator Based on Charged Y Ba2Cu3O7−ySuperconductor with Composite Crystal Structure

Friday, November 19, 2010

Faraday rotation in photons passing through graphene



Nature Physics
Published online: 7 November 2010 | doi:10.1038/nphys1816

Giant Faraday rotation in single- and multilayer graphene
Iris Crassee1, Julien Levallois1, Andrew L. Walter2,3, Markus Ostler4, Aaron Bostwick3, Eli Rotenberg3, Thomas Seyller4, Dirk van der Marel1 & Alexey B. Kuzmenko1


Abstract The rotation of the polarization of light after passing a medium in a magnetic field, discovered by Faraday1, is an optical analogue of the Hall effect, which combines sensitivity to the carrier type with access to a broad energy range. Up to now the thinnest structures showing the Faraday rotation were several-nanometre-thick two-dimensional electron gases2. As the rotation angle is proportional to the distance travelled by the light, an intriguing issue is the scale of this effect in two-dimensional atomic crystals or films—the ultimately thin objects in condensed matter physics. Here we demonstrate that a single atomic layer of carbon—graphene—turns the polarization by several degrees in modest magnetic fields. Such a strong rotation is due to the resonances originating from the cyclotron effect in the classical regime and the inter-Landau-level transitions in the quantum regime. Combined with the possibility of ambipolar doping3, this opens pathways to use graphene in fast tunable ultrathin infrared magneto-optical devices.

Supplementary information: The effect of the substrate

Figures and Author information

IOP News Article

Thursday, November 18, 2010

Legacy of Mike Strizki


The Grand Tour Part 1

The Grand Tour Part 2

German terminology used in English

Bremsstrahlung = synchrotron radiation

Zitterbewegung = fluctuation (at the speed of light) of the position of an electron around the median, with a circular frequency of approximately 1.6 × 1021 Hz.

Wednesday, November 17, 2010

The experiments demonstrating antigravity that defy replication

I read about purported antigravity effects. The magnitude of magnetic permablilty usually makes gravimagnetic interactions inconsequential except in coherent states. Yet there continue to be reports of experiments which cannot be replicated. You would think someone would just go there and take a look.

One experimental setup is described as a rotated, special size, asymmetrical capacitor, (with one plate superconducting and the other not), pumped with high voltage pulses whose frequency is optimized for the size of the plate to give the largest gravitational pulse. Both plates have the same chemical but different crystalline structure. The magnitude of the EMP theoretically should not depend on the size of the plate, which is actually a disc reinforced with plastic. Protection from the EMP generated is a safety requirement. This all takes place in a vacuum chamber.

Outside the chamber, one “gravity” component reportedly travels at between 63 and 64 times the speed of light and was measured over a length of one kilometer. The force interacts with photons and generates phonons, but does not loose measurable strength. This is the preferred setup because it allows one to vary how the magnetic flux quanta are pinned in the superconductor. The superconductor is of a cupric type that generally displays magnetic anomalies around the oxygen atoms.

Hypothetical application include communication and propulsion devices. The military, of course, thinks of everything as a weapon.

Let us analyze this. In the insulating plate, Cooper Pairs are pinned and flux quanta are condensed. In the superconducting plate, magnetic flux is pinned and Cooper Pairs are condensed. In one plate, magnetic flux quanta are accelerated. In the other, Cooper Pairs are accelerated adding an additional relativistic influence. It sounds like bremsstrahlung with gravitational components is being generated, but high accelation merely enhances the effect; it is not the cause. Note that the plates are not just asymmetric, they are in opposite phases, superconducting versus nonsuperconducting states. What happen to chiral symmetry here?

In spin charge separation states, a positron consists of a magneton and holon. Likewise, an electron consists of a spinon and chargon. A mass of electrons artificially confined in a small space together will split into spinons and holons due to the intensity of their mutual repulsion. Spinons and magnetons are antiparticles. Chargons and holons are antiparticles. In a Pi Flux Phase condensate like this, a Couper Pair is made up of two holons and two magnetons. Calculations show that the intensity of the pi flux is proportional to the area of the circle of the superconducting plate. Since time-reversal symmetry is preserved, perhaps the charges tunnel to the other plate and the spins tunnel as spin -1 gravitons at a speed slightly less than 64c. That is the best explanation I can think of at the moment based on the usual quantum mechanical concepts.

A second implementation uses special, powerful magnets with the north and south poles in extreme proximity to each other while accelerating with respect to an inertial reference frame. The cost of the magnets used to test this was reportedly $10,000. Perhaps Myth Busters should travel to the leaning tower of Pisa to test this. Nobody else seems interested. Haha.


The economics of new technologies.

The major stumbling block to using any new technology is the greed of people in power. Every technology is delayed while they search for ways to make sure the profits go to whatever corporations or groups the are beholding to.

nickel borate
The key to cheap efficiet fuel cells.

The following is an MIT speech about the need to find a way to make the large energy companys the beneficiaries of this technology.

MIT TechTV – MITEI Press Briefing - Part 1 - Moniz, Baldo, Nocera

Monday, November 15, 2010

Dr. Martin Tajmar

Unexplained force depends on density of Cooper Pairs

Anomily in Cooper Pair Mass

Antigravité - Émission Xenius Arte 2010

Antigravité - Martin Tajmar
Uploaded by realphil. - Technology reviews and science news videos.

Dr. Martin Tajmar - CasimirSim Software for Nanotech Computer Modeling

Friday, November 12, 2010

What would Ettore say?

Nonlinear, nonlocal, nonHamiltonian interactions due to wave overlapping at short distances are always attractive in singlet couplings and as such, absorb coulomb interactions, resulting only in attractive interactions irrespective of whether the Coulomb contribution is attractive or repulsive.

Photons are doves.

Electrons have spin and valley isospin. They combine with their antiparticles to form particles which are their own antiparticles. This includes neutral pions, Cooper pairs, and positronium. Why can't people get the motorcycle analogy?

Nucleons, etc. are trucks.

My universe is different from the one you think you know

Science 5 November 2010:
Vol. 330. no. 6005, p. 789
DOI: 10.1126/science.1192322
Prev | Table of Contents | Next

Electron-Like Scattering of Positronium
S. J. Brawley, S. Armitage,* J. Beale, D. E. Leslie, A. I. Williams, G. Laricchia

Positronium (Ps), a hydrogen-like atom composed of an electron and its antimatter partner, the positron, is formed in considerable quantities whenever positrons interact with matter. It has unexpectedly been found to scatter from a wide variety of atoms and molecules in a way very similar to that of a bare electron moving at the same velocity, despite Ps being neutral and twice the mass.

UCL Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
* Present address: Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

Present address: Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading RG 7 4PR, UK.

Present address: Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:

Wednesday, November 10, 2010

Wishing we could be more telepathic

BWO-Sunshine In The Rain

Track 16 on The Ultimate Collection

My favorite romantic ballad in English

The problem with CDs is you cannot see the artist performing. So, here is a link to her performance courtesy of Universal Music who disabled embedding.

My favorite romantic ballad in Italian

Thursday, November 4, 2010


Positive mood upregulates Telomerase activity. Stress reduction is good.

Tonya L. Jacobs, Elissa S. Epel, Jue Lin, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Owen M. Wolkowitz, David A. Bridwell, Anthony P. Zanesco, Stephen R. Aichele, Baljinder K. Sahdra, Katherine A. MacLean. Intensive meditation training, immune cell telomerase activity, and psychological mediators. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2010; DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.09.010

The 2010 Excavation in Egypt

The Egyptian are digging up something. But, there are conflicting traditions as to who actually built it in the first place, much less where the door to labyrinth is. Someone dug the lake, built the labyrinth, pyramid and city. Sad is a planet that looses its history and hides its past.

Manetho Aegyptiaca (2, frag. 34) (3rd century BC):

Short fragment from his list of Egyptian kings

The fourth king in the dynasty from Diospolis, ruled eight years under the name Lamares. He built the Labyrinth in the Arsinoite Nome as a tomb for himself. His descendants,i.e., Ameres, Ammenemes and Scemiophris ruled for 20 years. The complete dynasty lasted 160 years.

N.B., Arsinoite was at that time situated at the border of Lake Moeris. The name "Moeris" is a Greek adaptation of ancient Egyptian Mer-Wer (= "The Great Lake"). Following a different tradition it is reported that king Menas,i.e., protodynastic rulers or maybe Ameres, built a square pyramid and the labyrinth. The chief archaeological reference to Menes is an ivory label from Naqada which shows the royal Horus-name Aha (the pharaoh Hor-Aha, 3100 BC) next to a building, within which is the royal nebty-name mn, generally taken to be Menes.

The labyrinth location is marked with the pyramid currently credited to Amenemhet III. Amenemhet III is a pharaoh of the 12th dynasty, circa 1800 BC, who built a mud brick Pyramid at Dahshur ruined by ground water.

The Labyrinth’s slow destruction is caused by the site crossing a water channel, agricultural irrigation and the disappearance of the annual 9 month dry period since the construction of the Aswan dam making the area salty.

The village Hw.t-wr.t/AuJh`riß (= great temple) is attested 119 times in 62 documents between 292 BC and 141 AD.

The concentration of documents in the 1st century BC is due to the the Hawara undertaker’s archives.

The Egyptian Labyrinth (Labuvrinqoß) appears 18 times in 16 papyri between 258 BC and the reign of Hadrian (117-138 AD).

All texts but one are Ptolemaic.

Though the names Hw.t-wr.t/AuJh`riß and Labuvrinqoß disappear early from our records, archaeological finds show that the site was continuously occupied up to the 7th century AD when Ancient Egypt finally disappeared due to conquest.

The Egyptian name Hw.t-wr.t corresponds to Greek ÔAuh`riß in several bilingual documents, e.g. P.Hawara Lüdd. III (233 BC), P.Ashm. I 14 and 15 (72/71 BC) and P.Ashm. I 16 (69/68 BC).

The aspiration at the beginning of the word shows in the phi in ajf&Mac198; ÔAgouhvrewß th`ß ÔHrakªleivdou merivdoߺ (where ÔAgouh`riß stands for AuJh`riß) in SB XIV 11303. Greek aJ for Egyptian hw.t is found in other toponyms as well (Clarysse-Quaegebeur 1982, p.78).

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

Lund, Sverige circa 2025

European Spallation Source located beside the 3 GeV short pulse X-ray synchrotron facility and the Free Electron Laser – MAX IV

Obviously intended for condensed mater research applications.

The City of Ideas