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Friday, September 9, 2011

An LENR Paper


Author:   F. Piantelli - centro IMO - Università di Siena Pubblicato negli Atti dell’Accademia dei Fisiocritici - ottobre 2008

Abstract : Up to now, starting from August 1989, we performed many experiments which put into evidence an anomalous energy production with photon emission with energy among some keV and some MeV. Moreover tracks of heavy charged particles were photographed in a Wilson chamber; they were emitted from the metallic rods used as sample in the experiments after their extraction from the cell. In some and exceptional cases, when particular metals were used, a small neutron emission was found during the anomalous energy production (Au activation method and 3He counters). The analysis of the samples extracted after some months of energy production by means of the SEM EDAX technique put into evidence the presence of some elements not present in the sample at the beginning of the process. The initial hypothesis (August1989) are based on the H- ion capture from the transition metal nucleus in nanostructure crystal lattice. The H- is formed during the interaction between the surface of a nano-structure crystal lattice ( like a giant atom with discreet energy levels) of the transition metal and the H2 molecules It is well known that when the size of the atom system is of the order of 100 nm or less, the nano-structure crystal lattice like a “giant atom ”(high atomic weight) of transition metal, among other things, looses its characteristic band structure and its energetic levels become discreet and subject to the Pauli antisymmetrization. The observed phenomena (seen also in many other labs) can be ascribed to one or more sequential nuclear reactions, which are primed and produced by a H- ion interacting with an atom of whatever metal belonging to one of the four groups of transition metals and placed in a nanostructure crystal lattice. The H- ion is a fermion of spin ½ ; because of the lattice vibrations (phonons) of sufficient width and frequency, after the surface absorption, it can gain such an energy that it can overcome the energy gap due to the effective potential associated to the electronic density (N(r) function) and it can substitute an electron of the “giant atom ” and subsequently, overcoming an other energy gap, it can substitute an atom metal electron of the nano-structure crystal. At this point, as in the case of mesic, muonic and hyperonic atoms [μ-(mμ/me206.77), π-(mπ/me273.13), Κ-(mΚ/me 966.113), Σ-( mΣ/me 2343.377)], it aims at a lower level and it can penetrate the deeper layers with Auger electrons and high energy X rays emission. Since the H-mass is 1836(+2) times greater than the electron mass, the Bohr radius for H- becomes comparable with the nucleus radius; as a consequence it is possible its expulsion as a proton or a following capture of the H- by the nucleus, after loosing the two electrons during the interaction. The activation energy necessary to get over the potential barriers for orbital capture, can be supplied by reticular vibrations and electron plasma vibrations; these vibrations are increased when the temperature is over the anarmonicity level (Debye TD). The observation of the X rays emission is a proof of the fall in the deeper levels. The proton expulsion (proved in a Wilson camera) with sufficient energy makes possible a nuclear interaction with a different nucleus; as a consequence a nuclear reaction may take place. Among possible reactions some are proton dependent and they can produce g emission, α particles and sometimes also neutrons; in this way other secondary nuclear reactions can take place with nuclei of the same metal or with other elements present in the active core ( as impurities or previously absorbed). The α particles not producing nuclear reactions loose their energy by scattering and they become neutral He atoms after catching two electrons. Neutrons coming from secondary reactions triggered by protons or α particles and proton-deuteron reactions may explain the low amount of Tritium and Li. In fact if these (few) neutrons and some expelled protons and α interact with the Deuterium nuclei, present as impurity, they can produce also the . The describedg and d+α=6Li+g,d+p=3He+greaction d+n=T+ phenomena may happen also for the four groups of transition metals. The Tritium, Li and He production is more probable for the second, third and fourth groups of transition metals

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