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Thursday, October 20, 2011

LENR in a Nutshell

These care just my thoughts based on things I read about LENR. LENR effects occur when a (proton) conductor crystal usually based on nickel or palladium undergoes a phase transition becoming an insulator. The insulator phase is characterized by a uniform energy distribution in the wave function preventing ionic conduction and facilitating Umklapp processes. The size of the crystal lattice determines the ionic tunneling time in the insulator phase. Crystal dimension of 60 nm produce a 3 millisecond tunneling time. Tunneling time increases drastically with larger crystal sizes, i.e., LENR reactions are not observed in a crystal size less than 6 nm. In the insulator phase, gamma rays are absorbed through the coherent quantum Umklapp processes which provide the collective momentum required for LENR and restrict the generated phonons to the surface giving the illusion that the effect is a product of the surface conditions, the so-called Nuclear Active Region. Second order effects such as spellation, neutron emission, etc. obscure the basic phenomena to some people's minds. The phase transition to and from the insulator phase is marked by the release of a burst of gamma rays. The key sustained energy release is maintaining the uniform energy distribution of the wave function. Multiple small reaction chambers are used to help keep the temperature stable and low enough to prevent melting of the alloy. In nickel-hydrogen systems, energy production is in large part due to the beta decay of intermediate transmutation products back into nickel. Final transmutation products include 11% iron, 10% copper and small amounts of tin in the case of the E-CAT which uses a catalyst. Proton release has been detected through the use of cloud chambers. I wonder whether double proton emission and chain reactions occur. Gamma rays from positron annihilation were not detected. I wonder what Preparata and Majorana would say about this, but I presume they are dead. Majorana particles released? Who can doubt it or him! Sakarov would ask if cosmic rays are involved. Does it work a thousand feet underground? Edmund said that Rossi was just looking for a catalyst to combine hydogen with carbon di and monoxide. Rossi says he knew he had something when he burnt his hand. Haha!!

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